This site recounts families generated by “half-breed women … having no coat of arms but a ‘totem’ to look back to.” Or so they were derided by Canadian man of letters, Charles Mair, in his divisive missive published as “From Red River” on page one of the Toronto Daily Globe of 4 January 1869.[1] As Mair’s comment indicates, Red River women were subject to being dismissed in the racist-patriarchal colonial system that had been inherited from England by the new Dominion of Canada, and that its founders (the Anglophones of Ontario at any rate) had embraced for their projected nation.[2] But, to state what should be an obvious point, Red River women were the mothers of Assiniboia — the district, and the country that was formerly known as Rupert’s Land but renamed by the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia on 18 March 1870. Without those mothers, Louis Riel and others who resisted annexation to gain confederation could not have ‘fathered’ the province of Manitoba.

Aside from from being perpetual works in progress — sample family portraits with mistakes, omissions, and inaccuracies, both inherent and inadvertent — there are problems with these genealogies (still in the process of being uploaded to this site, and revisions will be ongoing).

First, the system of genealogical construction that is traditional in Western societies reflects the colonial, by way of privileging the patriarchal.[3] In the Red River instance, that system of construction is difficult to challenge let alone to escape. It is, after all, often only by tracing the the surnames of husbands and fathers through documents gathered and archived under the auspices, requirements, or benevolence of the colonial state that a genealogy extending much beyond a generation can be populated with women — some of whom are otherwise nameless. Further, it is by surname that a genealogy can be organized most readily into a coherent and readable whole that is amenable to cross-referencing and to identifying a woman’s step- and extended families. The genealogies uploaded as initial content for the pages of this site, therefore, reflect the colonial contexts, past and present, in which both the researched and myself-as-researcher are embedded. Conceivably, it should be possible to move beyond these initial constructions  and communicate maternal lineages at Red River more clearly. To date, however, that remains a project-in-waiting.

Second, these genealogies are cumbersome and not straight-forward lists of people who lived and died at Red River because families, then as now, were complicated. The people of the settlement were dynamic. They moved over time, within and without the settlement. Sometimes movement was temporary — to conduct a course of work, or attain an education for example. Sometimes movement proved permanent — when an individual, members of a family, or many members of an extended family relocated to another settlement. But sometimes some people moved back again, or their children did, or their grandchildren did (eventually, even generations-great-grandchildren might do so). As far as possible, places of residence are listed in the genealogies, though that life detail is often unknown.[4]

Third, Red River Settlement and other places of residence in the North-West were complicated. Their names changed — over time and according to what language was used to refer to them. And, at Red River the physical dimensions of parishes within the settlement, along with the outer limits of the entire settlement, changed over time as well. Boundaries shifted (during a relatively short period: beginning as a place of settlement in the colonial sense in about 1810 — but as early as 1792 if Chief Peeh-quaa-is/ Pa-Kwai-es/ Peguis’ first farming settlers at St. Peter’s Parish are acknowledged — and ending 1870). Places such as Portage la Prairie, St. Laurent, and Oak Point, though settled by people from, and related to people of Red River, were not necessarily part of Red River Settlement in terms of falling within its political boundary. The Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia, however, made sure those outlying settlements were included as of 1870 (see map, Reconstructing place, Red River 1870). By 1871 a significant discontinuity had been occasioned by the creation of Manitoba. New boundaries had been devised. Red River Settlement and the district of Assiniboia had ceased to exist in a formal, geopolitical sense. New names were applied across the landscape and old names were modified as territory was carved into new districts and locations were re-mapped as Canadian possessions.

Despite shortcomings, however, these genealogies can be used to recover a sense of the Aboriginal past in what is now Manitoba. The women listed are overwhelmingly Indigenous, through their maternal lineage, even if not marked as such. And, as far as paternal lineage, many of the “half-breed” women could have claimed ancestral heraldry as auspicious as any Charles Mair might have wished for himself.

For me, the genealogies reinforce the argument that Red River was a place of family and community that espoused a ‘perfect freedom.’ Individuals

fully engaged in a “shared world” as it was — not as it was ‘supposed’ to be — and thereby experienced heterogeneity as the norm. They were comfortably acculturated to pluralism. Multiple languages, different lifestyles and varied occupations were available from which to choose routes to realize personal destinies. They were not confined by ‘either or’ choices that were limiting or final.[5]

Red River was a place of interconnection (all of the families listed here link to one another): Where any boundaries that might have been posed by language, religion, and heritage were breached (in spite of colonizers’ determination to impose ‘othering’ culturalist typologies and adhere to systems of racialization). Where bloodlines were honoured (blood being understood as a metaphor for community, and lines as sympathies and inter-connections, sometimes familial, sometimes socio-economic and political),[6] with the many voices heard and accommodated democratically. Where the dominant pattern among the majority of settlers was not one of Indigenous women being progressively ‘phased out’ as suitable marriage partners on the basis of ‘race’ or ‘ethnicity’.[7] Where women too were Otepaymsuak — “their own boss.”


[1] Excerpt, Charles Mair, “From Red River,” The Daily Globe (4 January 1869), 1:

“After putting up at the Dutchman’s [George Emmerling’s] hotel there [at the Town of Winnipeg], I went over and stayed at Dr. Schultz’s [John Christian Schultz], after a few days. The change was comfortable, I assure you, from the racket of a motley crowd of half-breeds, playing billiards and drinking to the quiet and solid comfort of a home.  I was invited to a dinner-party at Beſſs [sic: Bell’s? Begg’s?], where I found the Governor’s brother-in-law, a wealthy merchant here, Isabister [sic], and other Nor’ Westers. Altogether, I received hospitalities to my heart’s content, and I left the place thoroughly pleased with most that I had met. There are jealousies and heart burnings, however. Many wealthy people are married to half-breed women, who, having no coat of arms but a “totem” to look back to, make up for the deficiency by biting the backs of their ‘white’ sisters. The white sisters fall back upon their whiteness, whilst the husbands treat each other with desperate courtesies and hospitalities, with a view to filthy lucre in the background. …

The half-breeds are the only people here who are starving. Five thousand of them have to be fed this winter, and it is their own fault – they won’t farm. They will hunt baffaloes, drive ox-carts 500 miles up and 500 miles back to St. Cloud, at the rate of twenty miles a day: do anything but farm. Hitherto, it was so easy to live here that it didn’t matter whether they farmed or not; but the grasshopper put a stop to that last summer, and now they are at their beam ends. As for the farmers: Scotch, English and French, not one of them requires relief; other than seed wheat, which they are quite able to pay for. This is the true state of the ease here: but it does not lessen the claims upon humanity.”

The typography of the article — use of a double long s (ſſ ) — lends uncertainty to determining the host of the dinner party attended by Mair. The guests might have assembled at the home of George Bell of St. John’s Parish, if he had worked in the fur trade or was a descendant of the former cooper of the same name who had worked for the Pacific Fur Company in Astoria/ Oregon. But Bell was a relatively young man who appears to have arrived at Red River from Scotland, so seems an unlikely candidate.  It is also possible, and more plausible, that the dinner was hosted by Charles Begg (of Scotland) and wife Catherine Spence (Métis), who resided in in the parish of St. Clement’s / Mapleton. Begg was older and a former servant of the Hudson’s Bay Company. He was more likely than Bell to have formed contacts with Mair’s fellow guests at the party, they being: merchant A.G.B. Bannatyne (married to Annie McDermot), who was the brother-in-law of HBC Governor William Mactavish (married to Mary Sarah/ Sally McDermot); and possibly William Isbister married to Mary Anne Begg, who was Charles Begg’s daughter. The most obvious candidates for the ‘white sisters’ with falsely courteous husbands would be Agnes Campbell Farquharson, wife of John C. Schultz, and Elizabeth Louise McKenney, who was Schultz’s stepsister and who would, by September, be Mair’s wife.

Mair’s assertions regarding looming ‘starvation,’ among ‘half-breeds’ defy logic: it is hard to imagine, for example, how grasshopper’s were a more devastating occurrence to freighters than to farmers; or how Mair expected the farming “Scotch, English and French” (most of whom were Métis or belonged to Métis families), who required no relief “other than seed wheat, which they are quite able to pay for,” were to get any seed without freighters — whether overland or water-borne — bringing it in. That is, farmers were no more independently capable in the settlement than were freighters.

A Red River rebuttal to Mair’s letter, penned 1 February 1869, “by a half-breed … rightly indignant of the stupidities [of] … a certain Mr. Mair,” printed as “Letter from a half-breed (L.R.) to Le Nouveau Monde (reprinted from Le Nouveau Monde, February 25, 1869),” [translated to English from the original French, in W.L. Morton ed., Alexander Begg’s Red River Journal And other Papers Relative to the Red River Resistance of 1869-70 (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1956), 399–402]:

“Please be so good as to give me a little space in the columns of your journal, in order that I too may write of Red River.

I cannot resist that desire since I have read the enormities which a journal of Upper Canada, the Globe, has just uttered, in publishing a letter of a certain Mr. Mair, who arrived in Red River last fall. This gentleman, an English Canadian, is, it is said, gifted in making verses; if such is the fact I should advise him strongly to cultivate his talent, for in that way his writings would make up in rhyme for what they lack in reason.

Scarcely a month after his arrival in this country, Mr. Mair desired to describe it and its inhabitants. He succeeded rather like the navigator who, passing by a league from the coast, wrote in his log: ‘The people of this country seemed to us to be well disposed ….”

I know some men who have more than two weeks’ experience and who say the opposite of this gentleman. He says finally: the city of Portage la Prairie is destined to become one of the most important in the country: however, I shall not speak to you of it until I have seen it.

And why not? You speak of a great many other things that you have not had time to see or know; that would be worth as much as the remainder of your letter; as much as the scarcely courteous terms, I will even say barely civilized, which you use in speaking of the ladies of the country, who certainly by all reports are equal to the ladies of your country.

Be it said in passing, Mr. Mair, if we had only you as a specimen of civilized men, we should not have a very high idea of them. If I wished to amuse myself by wielding the pen as you do for the sole pleasure of uttering follies to the world, I should have some amusing things to say on your account ….

L.R.” [“almost certainly” Louis Riel]

For more of Mair’s writing on Red River, see “Transcripts: The Red River Letters of Charles Mair“, “Transcript: Re: ‘The North-West Papers’ (Mair’s Letter to Macdougall)“, “Transcript: Re: ‘The North-West Papers’ (Mair’s Letter to Macdougall)“, “Transcript: Hamilton Spectator Re: Mair’s Letter to Macdougall“, and “Transcript: Mair (late of Red River) invents the Settlement, the Métis, and the Resistance for the Globe” (archive.org). For another of Louis Riel’s responses, mocking Mair for having his comeuppance at the hands of Annie BANNATYNE, see “un chien de Mer’ (Là-bas),” Songs of the Resistance (archive.org).

[2] For an indication of my orientation with respect to historiography, see Timothy J. Stanley, “Why I Killed Canadian History: Towards an Anti-Racist History in Canada,” Histoire sociale/ Social History, vol. 33, no. 65 (2000), 79–103; and “Historiography and Red River Settlement,” this site.

[3] Martha Addante, “Rupturing the Patriarchal Family: Female Genealogy in Disappearing Moon Café [sic: italics in source],” Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering 4, 2 (2002): 201–214.

[4] Locations at some points in time often can be traced on scrip affidavits and claims. Some of these can be viewed online, as digital images of microfilmed pages, through Library and Archives Canada LAC] (‘Collection search‘, select ‘Archive search’, enter ‘RG15’ followed by the desired ‘name’). With patience and perseverance, most of the collection can be viewed online (some records remain elusive), as digitized images of microfilm reels, through Canadian Heritage, North-West Territories Métis scrip applications (73 reels) and Métis and Original White Settlers affidavits (54 reels, some of which might not be relevant).

Update: For an excellent description of online Red River sources see Jackie Corrigan, “In Search of Red River Ancestors,” As Canadian As Can Be website (19 October 2022), https://hoguegirardin.wordpress.com/category/red-river-settlement/.

Difficulties: Please note that where, in these pages, a link to scrip is followed by “not available online” the link is to a LAC listing that was not accompanied by a digitized image at the time of compiling. [Whinging:] As well, LAC has attempted to update its online system, so links have been broken and it will take time before that circumstance is corrected on these pages. Updates: as of 8 March 2022 the LAC search function is proving less than optimal — for example the known scrip affidavit for William Falster (previously available as an LAC scrip affidavit) seems to have disappeared, and the known scrip affidavit of Alexander Favel (previously available as an LAC scrip affidavit) disappeared as well; as of 18 March 2022 the LAC databases (scrip, census, &c.) did not link to images, and the Canadiana.org images of scrip records did not load (the latter problem was resolved relatively quickly and an easier to view system update was installed); as of 9 July 2022 everything reliant on https://www.bac-lac.gc.ca was down. Unfortunately it appears there are plans to redesign the Canada census pages as well (see https://thediscoverblog.com/2022/07/); oddly, as of 13 July 2022 jpeg images of LAC scrip pages were still accessible online, and could be viewed one at a time by beginning at about http://data2.archives.ca/e/e001/e000010013.jpg. and increasing the final numerical sequence value in the address (to at least as far as /e.000029000.jpg.); as of 21 December 2022 none of the RG15 records nor any censuses were available to view; as of 4 January 2023 scrip record images took an exceptionally long time to load.

[5] Norma Jean Hall, ” A ‘Perfect Freedom’: Red River as a Settler Society, 1810–1870,” M.A. thesis (University of Manitoba, 2003), 75, 148, 168, further argues that colonialist Canada’s reliance on nationalism-as-dogma (a central tenet of fascism) was antithetical to diversity and pluralism (characterized as anarchy), so instead imposed “binary descriptions … amenable to being interpreted as proof of oppositional difference [that demanded eradication/ annihilation]. To those who agreed with the pronouncements of renowned British political theorist John Stewart Mill published in 1861, t he existence of such difference was believed antipathetic to the realization of practical nationhood. The viability of a polity was assumed to rest on its absolute unity — paradoxically, a unity sought through the imposition of terms of equally absolute division.” All of which was in keeping with ‘divide and rule’ colonialist policy (see On the Wedge of Empire this site).

[6] See Lorri Neilsen Glenn, Following the River: Traces of Red River Women (Hamilton ON: Wolsak and Wynn, 2017), 17–18; entry for Sinclair, Elizabeth ‘Betsy’/ ‘Betsey’, “Other SINCLAIRs” this site, with note on the Red River language on kinship; and W.J. Healy, Women of Red River (1923), frontispiece, “Out and in the river is winding  The links of its long, red chain“.

[7] See Brian Martin Gallagher, “The Whig Interpretation of the History of Red River,” MA thesis UBCV (1986) pdf, who lays out a solid challenge to the notion put forward by Sylvia Van Kirk, Many Tender Ties (1980); and Norma Hall, “Identifying and Quantifying Métis ‘Élite’: An Analysis of relative wealth, based on Red River Settlement censuses of 1835,” (2002; 2016).

Header Image:

Derived from Johan Carl Kraus, “Acer Negundo,” Afbeeldingen der fraaiste, meest uitheemsche boomen en heesters, (1802), 116 (n 417), illustrating twigs, leaves, blossoms, and seeds of the Acer negundo, or Manitoba Maple, the only maple in North America with compound leaves.

Compiled and edited by Norma J. Hall Ph.D (Canadian History)

Published 31 July 2016; revisions ongoing through 2022.

55 thoughts on “Home

  1. Thank you so much for this website. I have been so upset researching my ancestry and finding only “Indian woman” in the place of a human being who created my family as much as any man.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Yes, it’s like they issued the babies, and that was it. Though to be fair, it was a time when women in general had little voice.

      I’d like to think that my great, great, great grandmother was curious about the Europeans, rather than in awe. She married probably the first one she saw. I’d love to know what she was thinking, and then know her reaction to the Europeans . She lived a long time, 86 years if her birth date is right, living longer than all but one of her children, and seeing the northwest carved up, and then seeing Canada encroach Red River. I’ve seen snippets of things my great, great, great grandfather wrote. He can’t believe she’ll go with him, I think that’s about moving to Red River, and late in his life he wrote about native women (and surely specifically about her) “her smiles add a new charm to the pleasures of the wilderness”.

      Both stepped out of their own cultures, and marriages like theirs shatter the image we know from westerns. How can people be so different if they can live so long together? I’ve read that he came over to make some money, and return to Scotland, so he stayed because of her and the children. It wasn’t perfect, but it would be a different continent if a lot more marriages had been like that, reservations and residential schools would have been hard to implement if a lot more people had relatives that would be affected.

      But the other side is that while the family back in Scotland got mail from some of the children, the Syilx side of the family “didn’t trust white men after the she moved away” according to Mourning Dove’s autobiography.

      I’ve yet to find if any of the children spoke her language, but I can’t believe they didn’t. She had to be the one raising them.

      It took me eight years of internet searching (obviously using the wrong search terms) to find anything written by my great, great grandmother. Unlike many of her siblings, she didn’t get a street named after her in Winnipeg. But finally a quote popped out, she wrote in 1853 that she wouldn’t go to Canada because she was ashamed of being a “dark skinned, uneducated” half-breed. Of course, I’m not in Winnipeg with access to all that was donated to various archives, so there’s likely more in paper frm

      We do need to claim those ancestors, because their erasure is part of what happened.



      1. Thank you for writing this. I hope that you continue to search and publish her writings. I believe that my ancestress were ‘erased’.


  2. Nice insights Michael: “Both stepped out of their own cultures” and “erasure is part of what happened” especially resonate with me.


    1. Norma I’m trying to get a hold of you regarding research. Le roc and francios Guillemette.

      Francois was a made up name from man who was murdered in a French novel.

      I believe the man is le roc


      1. Hi Patrick, that’s a brilliant finding and another oddity in the historiographic record on the Resistance for sure. Thanks for the update. I’ve allowed comments on the ‘Red River Responders’ page so that, if you choose, you can share your findings there and get the credit you are due.


    2. Norma regarding my research i am writing a paper on the “riel council photo”1869

      Are you able to reach out to me i have some questions thoughts.

      My 90 year living grand mother has passed down some info to me and i believe there is some good info to share and see your thoughts

      I am working on the paper with derrick nault.

      My number is 7808934166 or patrickstewart1983@gmail.com


  3. Excellent analysis! You touch on a point that is crucial and fluid – how the parish/jurisdictional boundaries moved and what people lived where. Shifting jurisdictions are part of Red River history, no matter what era of map you study. Growing up in Charleswood, I was completely unaware that it was originally “Charles de bois” – “Woods of St Charles”. Even though German immigrant friends on Southboine had a historical plaque beside their house that described a ferry point for transportation of cattle from St Charles to pasture land for cattle. I hope the multi-millionaires that live on that street now at least maintain the past…

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Interesting! Found my ancestors names and learned a bit more about them. I would like to know where abouts you found theses PAHKWAIS Kiseyinis Newakeyas Wapistikwani Pete’ KASAIINEYS/ KASAEYINEWS/ ‘KITCHENER’ I did my family tree these are all names in my tree.


  5. I think it was A.D. Meyer’s Masters thesis. ” The Red Earth Crees and the Marriage Isolate, 1860-1960″ that mentioned most of them. It’s a pdf you can google and download.


  6. I found this a most interesting read on my ancestors. My paternal great grandmother was Sarah Turner, wife of George Goodfellow (Scottish employee of the HB Co.) who also traced her ancestry to Humpervilles (Humphryvilles). My maternal great grandmother was Lizette Louise Morissette tracing her ancestry back to Morissette, Braconnier and Pelletier. Thank you for posting this.
    Lee Goodfellow


  7. Hi, I so appreciate your fine work. I’ve followed Robert Logan, b 1773 Jamaica and found his native wife, Mary, referred to as Mary O’Meara or O’Meare. I’ve only seen a Frederick A. O’Meare b 1814 Ireland, who arrived to Canada 1838, too late to have been father to Mary http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/o_meara_frederick_augustus_11E.html I’ve seen Mary described in other sources as Mary Salteaux, reflecting her native blood and lack of European surname. I really would like to learn as much as I can about Mary and her band. Have you any idea where the “Mary O’Meara” is coming from? I worry it is a mistake that has simply propagated.


      1. But maybe not. Recently, I came across O’Meara as a surname in Band Annuity Paylists — in and around Lake Winnipeg. it’ll take a while, but I plan to see where that might lead


  8. I’m trying to find out who to contact about further information about the wonderful first draft map of Assiniboia?


  9. I am interested in learning more about the wonderful map of Assiniboia posted on this site. I am currently researching and writing a biography of John and Tchi-ki-Wis Linklater. John’s paternal grandmother (Ellen Linklater), uncles, aunts, all lived in St. Andrews from 1864 onward until their dispersal in the mid-1870s. The Richards family were also at Red River and related to Ellen Linklater (nee Richards). I am hoping to connect with the map maker(s).


  10. Norma, holy majoly. Wow. I LOVE the map. I enlarged it and went through it piece by piece.
    Thank you for such a compiliation!
    I would 100% buy a large wall size colour copy of this. Please do let us know if one will be available.
    Merci, c’est encroyable!


  11. I discovered this awesome site a few months back. At that time there was a Jane Prince (married to George Taylor I) who it was suggested was an adopted daughter of Chief Peguis. I couldn’t seem to find that again today. Has there been research come to light to change that, or maybe I just missed it somewhere. Love this site!


    1. Hi Campbell. Sources indicate the Jane Prince married to George Taylor belonged to another, not directly related, Prince family located further north. See, for example, the Hudson’s Bay Company biographical sheet for George Taylor, her husband , which indicates Jane was born and raised at Albany.


      1. I appreciate this response. I know that the younger Jane Prince was the daughter of Mark Prince, separate from the Peguis Prince family. Why I am after is her mother’s lineage. Her mother was also Jane Prince/Bruce, also married to George Taylor. My personal visits with the historian of the Peguis First Nation have the Nation saying she was a daughter of Peguis. However, the times don’t mesh properly. Peguis would have had to be a father when about 11. So, when I saw on here that this Jane Prince was adopted it interested me. But that has since been removed. I am just wondering where the idea came from, as this Jane Prince was Ojibwa and this type of adoption was quite normal in Ojibwa and other Indigenous culture.


  12. What an amazing site! Just discovered you. Wow. My grandmother is Lily Olive McKay, daughter of Arthur Cuthbert McKay and Fanny Borstad, granddaughter of ‘Gentleman’ Joe McKay and Flora Ann McKay. Thanks so much for sharing all this.


  13. Wonderful info as always! I have a correction to the Hogue/Hogg page.

    You have duplicate entries here. This Thomas(5) is s/o Thomas Hogue/Hogg and Philomene McMillan, not Louis and Adelina.
    Also it is this Thomas who was the sheriff of La Salle, not his father.

    5. HOGUE/ HOGG, Thomas Joseph Arthur. Born 26 February 1879 St. Charles MB; married 6 April 1907; of La Salle MB; died 5 February 1955 Winnipeg MB.
    – sp. GIRARDIN, Marie Emma ‘Masie’. Born 23 June 1878 Worcester Mass. U.S. to Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929) and Onesime Angeline ALLARD (1852-1896); died 28 August 1979 Winnipeg MB.

    4. HOGUE, Thomas Joseph. Born 26 February 1878/ 1879; with parents, listed 1881 MB census; with parents, listed 1891 Assiniboia MB census; with parents, listed 1901 Macdonald Municipality MB census; designated 1901 ‘Cree French Breed’; photograph; died 1955.
    – sp. GIRARDIN, Emma.
    Louis and Adelina did have a son Thomas who was born 15 Sep 1916. He’s in the 1921 and 1926 census records. He never married and died 7 Sep 1990 in St. Anne, MB.


      1. Thanks for your very kind words! Just one note:
        ‘Sheriff of La Salle, criminals were often held for the night in the house, guarded in turns by the five older HOGUE brothers’ should be attached to 4. HOGUE, Thomas Joseph. Born 26 February 1878/ 1879.


    1. Hi Lorri, apologies for the slooooow response. Mary and Catherine and Sally will definitely be here. I hope before too long. Progress at uploading keeps getting interrupted by distractions. In the meantime, I want to thank you for alerting me to the way ‘blood lines’ relate to honouring our past women. I’ve added a line to the home page intro. above and referenced your book.
      Grateful for the poetry,


      1. Miigwech, Norma! I hope you’re well. Glad you’re still doing this important work. And thank you for referencing my book — I’m honoured. Kinanaskomitin. (Would you mind correcting the spelling of Neilsen, just so it’s easier to track down the book. (Neilsen, rather than Nelson). I hope we can see each other again when the world opens up. You still have my email, I hope) Stay well and thank you again for this incredible resource! / Lorri


  14. What an excellent and well put together treasure trove of information!

    I did want to comment on something in particular. I am a descendant of Malcom Gilbert Bremner. All my life I have heard stories that his mother was Millie Parker, or at least some time after 1908 she came up as being his mother. In 20 years of searching for any trace of Millie Parker, though, I have come up completely empty. During that time, I have concluded that Millie Parker does not actually exist (at least, not as his mother.) I’ll explain.

    Documentary evidence for Malcolm is strangely sparse, but it exists. He appears in the 1891 census as a son in the household of Charles and Emelie. When he made his Northwest Halfbreed Claim for scrip, he identified his father as Charles and his mother as Emelie. He again appears in the census in 1906, this time with his wife and children in the vicinity of MacLeod, Alberta. In each of these instances, he is part of the family, born April 29, 1876. Family photos show him with some of his family members, although never with Charles and Emilie. But there was a reason for that. In 1893, Malcolm was arrested for stealing a $5 bank note from the till of a store in Battleford, Sask. He was brought before J.D. Moodie where he plead guilty and was sentenced to three months in prison with hard labour. Some context – when the Bremner family initially moved to Saskatchewan in the early 1880s, Charles sent his son, Andrew, back to Winnipeg to purchase supplies for the new store he planned on opening to trade with Poundmaker’s people. When Andrew finally returned, instead of supplies, he brought back a Canadian wife, having spent all the money on household items for themselves instead. This made the relationship with Andrew so cold that Charles took his nephew, Denis Caplette, on as his right hand man in all his business pursuits. In Malcolm’s case, the store he had stolen from was one that Charles frequently hauled freight for, and he owned them money for stock he purchased for his own store in Bresaylor just prior to 1885. He was also in a very bad way in those years. Being labeled a rebel in 1885 meant he was not compensated for any of the losses and damages he suffered. I think that all together, this caused an estrangement between Malcolm and the rest of the family that lasted until all of their deaths, to the point that Malcolm wasn’t even mentioned in his father’s obit.

    Now for some family insider information. At some point, between 1906 and 1908, Malcolm suddenly moved his family to Browning, Montana. He never told anyone the reason for the move, nor did his wife. The only thing the family knew for sure is that he refused to ever return to Canada because he feared being hung if he did. It was after this time that a new birth date in 1868, and a new mother, Millie Parker, appeared. This is a common practice amongst people wanting to hide, to slightly alter their information in an effort to avoid detection. This is what I think that was about. The year of his birth was arbitrary, but the name of his “new” mother was closer to home. His mother’s name was Emilie (often written as Amelia or Emily) and Millie would be a shortened version of that name.

    Anyway, I just wanted to share that with you. Take care!


  15. Under 3. PRUDEN, Maria
    4. FOLSTER, Henry George. Born 3 April 1870 St. Andrews, Red River; married 1 February 1894 St. Clements MB; died December 1950.

    Henry was my husband’s ggrandfather.

    Accident where death occurred – H.G. Folster, killed at Victoria Beach Subdivision, Manitoba, June 5, 1937, Canadian National Railway

    Death Reg # 1937-051095

    He was hard of hearing and apparently did not hear the train approaching.


  16. Very interesting site! I just wanted to give you (and all those researching the Monkman family) my information for my great grandmother Nancy Irvine (Monkman). She was born 16 October 1856 to Joseph Monkman (1830-1908) and Elizabeth (Henderson) Monkman (1829-1903) and was baptized 6 Nov. 1856 St. Andrews. She was married to John Irvine in 1876 at St. Andrews. She died 8 Jan. 1915 at Halcro Saskatchewan. Her sister Margaret married Wiliam Halcro.
    On this site and others as well as many genealogy sites her father is listed as “Old” Joseph Monkman (1810-1899) or even sometimes his son Joseph Monkman (1836-1910). There is much confusion with these Josephs. Her father was the son of James (1805?-1865) who was the brother of “Old Joe” (1810-1899). They were both the sons of James (1775-1865). Nancy’s father and (1836) Joseph were cousins. Charles Denney’s papers may have contributed to this confusion as he was mistaken as to the proper Joseph and I think maybe he was mislead by the newspaper notice of Nancy’s husband’s death.
    Nancy’s parents death dates are listed in John Irvine’s family bible, which our family has, providing extra proof of her parentage.
    Also I believe that the three Monkman’s baptized in 1834 could be the children of James (1805) – James (1830?), Nancy’s father Joseph (1830) and Mary (1832)


  17. This is a fascinating find. My family is Chartrand, fur trading voyageurs who settled in Cahokia IL. I am trying to figure out at this point if my family is this group. Many names match remarkably well and I know there is some research to support Cahokia being a Voyager/Metis settlement. I’d love to discover more, and find out if my suspicions about our family are are correct. Thank you so much for this resource!


    1. Hi Arch, I would be very interested in what info you have. My great grandmother was Marie L Fiddler but the only information I have is that she was born in 1892 and passed in 1972


  18. Marianne Genereux did not give birth to Alfred Schmidt (Laferté). Pierre Laferté who was Louison Lafferty’s father is recorded in Fort Resolution Fort Journals and was from Red River. Alfred was adopted by Pierre and Marianne Laferté shortly after his birth in 1825. Alfred’s father was Mathew Schmidt and his mother was Marianne Schneidecher.


  19. This is such a great source!
    I was looking everywhere for My great great grandmother frazie prince! So thank you for providing something and being a source to go to.
    She married Andrew Grisdale of broken head. This says that they had no children. But I have found a birth record Or two with her name on it. And also The broken head census has them listed with children.. Norman, Charles, Priscilla and Mary Ellen* (my great grandmother, real name Marie Helen)
    Marie married Oliver George Williams Of fisher river and together they had 13? Children
    It was said that Marie was also medicine woman.


  20. Thank you so much!
    Sincerely, thank you. I have been consistently searching through my ancestry for a couple years and was stumped on Euphrasion for a while till I found your site.
    Norman grisdale born 1910
    Charles Grisdale born 1912
    Priscilla born 1921 died 1940
    Marie, born 1923, died 1975, married Oliver Williams, born 1914, died 1991(kinda stumped on his parents Roderick and Christie Williams of fisher river)
    Some of marie and Oliver’s children are
    (my grandmother) Myrtle Evelyn Williams 1947-1980, married Carl Edwards, they had 6 children. Elizabeth Williams, Gloria Williams, Nelson Williams, Rita Williams, Frank Williams, Cecelia Williams, Freda Williams, and Andrew Williams.
    Most of them, women included, passed down the Williams name to their children.


    1. Hi Rachael,
      Thanks for your posted information.
      I am helping a family member with Williams family – the parents of Roderick Williams appear to be Joseph and Juliet Williams as found on the 1926 Canadian Census with grandchildren – one being Oliver George Williams. Roderick and Christie Williams are found on the 1911 census and by 1921 Census Christie is a widow.
      Is there an email address where I can contact you more privately for further sharing?


      1. You’re so welcome! That is awesome! And yes I have seen that the kids lived with joesph for a while on the census as well. But I can’t seem to find what happened to either of them for that to occur. And who exactly is Christie? I have a Strong hunch that it’s Christina harriet Spence born in 1891, Since she had a brother by the same name Oliver George Wellington, but i still have yet to confirm that.
        You can reach me at rachaeltichborne@gmail.com
        Look forward to chatting with you!


  21. Thank You for this wonderful resource. I have info on Mary St. Germain. Can I ask who run this website and how I can contact them?


  22. Absolutely fantastic site, and so well researched. I recently came across a stirring account of my ancestor Donald McKay, who was “cleared” from Sutherland in 1821 during the Highland Clearances along with many other families, in the book: “Set Adrift Upon the World: The Sutherland Clearances” by James Hunter. Thank you, Norma J. Hall (and please don’t ever take down this site!)


  23. While googling John Dallas of Carriacou I came across your website which is awesome. The abridged Dallas genealogy with the parts highlighted in yellow made it easy for me to find the info related to the West Indies. I also see allied families that had large holdings in South America. I see a few of my own family names like Davidson, Matheson, and McIntosh. I’m only 12% Scottish but it’s very easy to trace them as opposed to my African and Madeiran ancestry.


  24. Thank you so much for all your research, and keeping your site updated, I know that many, many people use the information you’ve collected …. I have an addition for you, to the family of Jean Marie (John) Whiteford/Whitford and Marguerite McGillis: their daughter Marguerite Alma, born 31 Mar 1920 in Willow Bunch, SK, baptized at St. Victor, died 23 Dec 1994 in North Battleford. She was my mother-in-law. In Battleford, SK in 1942 she married Daniel Joseph Amyotte (b 1916 d 1999 North Battleford). He was a son of Napoleon Amyotte (b 1884 d 1941) and Rosea Pritchard (b 1894 d 1982). Napoleon’s father was Arthur (Archie) Amyotte/Amyot/Amiot (Métis, Pembina, ND), mother Betsy Anderson (Métis, RR). Archie was active in the 1885 resistance in Canada, and in the US was one of the signatories to Riel’s petition for a reservation in Montana. I have the baptismal certificates for both Marguerite and Daniel. I noticed that that there aren’t yet listings for the Delorme or Trottier (Trotchie) women, but I know this is a huge project, and I am grateful for all your work!


  25. Norma jean hall – I am trying to get a hold of you regarding on going research of Francios Guillemette and Larocque

    I have a lot of information regarding this and would
    Love to talk to you


  26. I found my great grandmother in the slide show. Catherine Saunders Clarke. Her son Alec was my grandfather. So amazing to find this.


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